IMMUNOGLOBULIN G AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE

Immunoglobulins form a significant portion of humoral immunity. The most common antibody among all antibodies is IgG whose percentage sums up to an approximation of around 73-81 percent. It’s production is carried out by memory cells also referred as plasma cells and has two sites where specific antigens can attach to.

Being the most significant portion of serum antibodies, it aids in humoral immunity by enabling the body to protect itself from pathogenic microorganisms which causes infections. Its two antigen binding sites are helpful as it can form attachment to many virulent microorganisms for example fungi, parasites, bacteria and virusesand works towards ensuring that they are being cleared from the blood streams. These can result to inflammatory changes in the body such as redness, edema, pain, rising temperatures and loss of fiction which can be detected by fit ab’s food intolerance test To achieve all of its functions it employs various mechanism in its action that are listed below.

  • IgG attaches to virulent microorganisms making them unable to circulate throughout the body: Bound pathogens clot together in a process called agglutination and are prepared for breakdown by phagocytic cells.
  • IgG triggers classical pathway that is part of the body’s compliment system leading to a series of reactions that eliminate the pathogen.
  • Neutralization of toxins produced by pathogens by IgG helps in fighting infections.
  • In Proteolysis which is the breakdown of antigens that are protein in nature and initiated by cell cytotoxicity IgG plays a key role in destroying infected cells or any other abnormal cells including cancerous cells.
  • It also works in hand with type two and three hypersensitivity reactions to clear all the pathogenic microorganisms and affected body cells.
  • Because of its small size, it can penetrate the placenta and thus giving protection to the fetus in utero and neonate before its before its humoral immunity is fully established. . Thus it’s levels should always be maintained especially in pregnancy so

    as the fetus can get the protection it requires.

  • Antibodiesof IgG are big in size which are formed structurally by four chains of peptide molecules. It’s structure is composed of two classes of y chains which are known to have heaviness of about 50Dka and two other chains that are lighter weighing approximately 25DKa. In addition the heavy chains are connected to another heavy chains and lighter chains are also connected to the other which is also lighter and this leads to the shape formation of immunoglobulin G. The tips of the antibody have the antigen binding sites which are modifiable allow attachment to many antigens which are different. This characteristic is referred to as adaptability of the antibody. Modifications to these sites gives rise to four different types of IgG antibodies namely IgG 1 to IgG 4.

There are four subclasses of IgG named 1-4 based on their quantity levels that are within the blood and extracellular fluids. The subclasses have difference in their hinge structure which confers them adaptability to the type of antigen produced against.

IgG provide secondary immunity in that sensitization of the body against a specific pathogen is important in their production by memory B cells.

In the practice of medicine, IgG measurement levels are important in making diagnosis body’s immunity response to various virulent microorganisms present in the body. It can also be used to diagnose particular antibodies against certain conditions such as autoimmune hepatitis.  Clinically measured IgG  antibody indicate one’s immune status which is important for one to know so as to take protective measures.

In cases where one lacks IgG antibodies or they are present in low amount, infections are likely to occur due to the incapability of the body to provide itself with a defense mechanism. Such deficiencies are not age limited and therefore affects people of all ages. This deficiencies occur if the production of IgG is impaired and the impairment is caused due to various reasons such as nutritional deficiencies of proteins.

Deficiency of IgG manifests with the following infections:

  • Respiratory infections and sinusitis e.g. pneumonia and bronchitis.
  • Gastrointestinal infections such as gastritis.
  • Ear infections e.g. otitis media.
  • Sore throat infections e.g. laryngitis.

Categories: Advice

Be Opinionated

A popular saying in software is that 80% of users use 20% of your features. Maybe this is true, but it’s not useful in practice. The problem is it’s never the same 20%. The collective 20%’s intersect with 100% of features, meaning every fringe feature has an audience. This presents a design challenge if you’re looking for a simple interface.

One solution is to design an opinionated interface. Have an opinion on which features define the core experience. That opinion is guided by data, observations, and intuition. But ultimately, it’s a subjective call on how the product should work, and how it should be used.

Using that opinion as a guide, you can design the naive solution — an interface that only includes core features, brazenly omitting secondary features. The result is a product that’s fantastically fast and simple for the core experience, but lacking a depth of features.

The challenge now becomes adding that depth of features without slowing or complicating the core experience. Each additional feature now has a clear cost and benefit. You’re forced to implement features in an appropriate way, or not at all.

Categories: Advice Design

Incremental Destruction

Great products evolve over time. It’s rare to get it right on the first try. So we iterate.

The ability to throw something out there and iterate is one of the biggest strengths of the Web — No software to update, no physical hardware to worry about. You can build out a lot of ideas and see what gains traction.

Iteration also leads to trouble. Take a simple, focused product and iterate, iterate, iterate. Pretty soon you’ve got a complex product with dozens of new features and a general lack of focus.

Every feature you added proved its worth when you initially tested it. Each one improved some part of the experience for some percentage of your audience. But taken as a whole, those new features made your product harder to understand, less targeted towards a specific use case, and more difficult to maintain.This is really hard to see when you’re nose-down on a project. It’s difficult to say “No” to a new feature when the stats tell you it produces an X percent increase in Y.

The only solution to this problem is to take a step back and start over. Re-design the entire thing. This time you’ve got a deeper understanding of the underlying problem and will make a stronger first pass. Now test this new solution against the solution produced through iteration.

There’s a chance you’ll shift the stats to an entirely new baseline, far above where you could get through incremental improvements. Designing a monolithic change is a bigger commitment and risk, but it’s the only way to make a giant leap forward.

Categories: Advice Entrepreneurship

Moonshiner – Light Comes From Solar Powered Mason Jars

https://moonshinerco.com

Moonshiner Co. brings to us green and Eco-friendly concept of light sources. When the sun goes down all you need is one of Moonshiner solar powered jars to set the mood and enjoy the evening.

They are perfect for long talks with friends and great outdoor times, inmate occasions and romantic runaways. Moonshiner solar jars are pure fun and very green project.

All you need is 6 to 12 hours of light (depending if the sky is clear or cloudy) and when the night falls you will have you private light source. hang it, put it on the table or on the ground and enjoy.

Kitchens Inspired – Elements (Earth, Wind, Ice, Fire)

https://robgoodlatte.com

Elements (Earth, Wind, Ice and Fire) are behind the idea of Caesarstone collaboration with world-renowned designer Tom Dixon. Tom Dixon’s vision is wrapped around these basic elements surrounding us and includes four semi-professional kitchens. New conceptual kitchen design is in line with an experimental food concept.

Each kitchen design is inspired by different element thus delivering to observers and users unique and memorable food experience. The Earth kitchen is inspired by the ancient Roman aqueducts and delivers earthy brown tones. It is made from assembled segments of petrified wood. The Fire kitchen is inspired by charred wood and smoke with conceptual experience of smoked and burned food through dark beams and hints of gold. The Ice kitchen, as name already point, is inspired by frozen chunks of ice with predominant white tones and jagged edges. And finally, Wind kitchen is inspired by urban exposures and vertical lines with tones of concrete grey in order to have an experience of an urban dessert bar.

Categories: Main

Kaleido – Infinite Candle Lights

https://robgoodlatte.com

Kaleido are kaleidoscope-like one-way glass photophores which are projecting candle lights inside them to infinite reflections. This shimmering optical illusion designed by Arturo Erbsman Studio creates most astonishing visual effect that hits the very beginning and end of every second, showing us that infinity is something so close but still so unreachable to us.

Categories: Main